An Electric Road System (ERS) consist of five different subsystems:
The electricity supply consists of transmission, distribution and management components. Transmission includes how the electric power flows from the generation sources over long distances. Distribution is how the power flows through a grid to the power transfer subsystem. The management component controls the operation and balance the energy.
The road subsystem consists of pavement, barriers and auxiliary components. The pavement includes the actual structural body and road markings. Barriers includes both safety and noise protection components. Auxiliary components are road signs and other necessary roadside components.
The power transfer subsystem is divided into three components: road power transfer, vehicle power transfer and control. The road power transfer component consists of in-road and/or roadside equipment that handles detection of the vehicle and transferring of power from the road. Vehicle power transfer controls safe activation and operation of a power receiver, and measures transferred energy after successful acknowledgment. The control component monitors the energy handover and system operation.
The electric road operation subsystem controls the energy management of the overall system, provides user information and handles payment and billing. This subsystem also handles access and lane control of the road based on vehicle identification.
The vehicle subsystem includes the necessary component that converts the power from the power transfer subsystem into either propulsion of the vehicle or to energy storage. A control component provides user information, fleet management and vehicle positioning.