References to the information below are given in the report Overview of ERS concepts and complementary technologies.
Siemens has worked with overhead catenary lines, and its technology named eHighway has been tested on a 2 km closed test track east of Berlin, Germany. Full vehicle integration has been made with heavy trucks from both Scania and Volvo Group. The Siemens solution has been demonstrated since 2016 together with Scania trucks by Region Gävleborg along 2 km of the E16 highway outside Sandviken, Sweden. The eHighway solution has also been demonstrated during 2017 by South Coast Air Quality Management District together with three different trucks along one mile of an urban road in the City of Carson in Los Angeles County, California, USA.
Alstom has a service-proven power system for tramways called APS which supplies electricity through a third rail at ground level and eliminates the need for overhead lines (in order to meet new requirements for tramways in urban areas). The APS product is used in many cities for energy transfer during movement and has been used as a foundation when Alstom has developed its ERS system that involves two rails in the road surface level. AB Volvo has developed power receiver pick-up arms for heavy transport vehicles and tests have been made at a Volvo test site in Sweden. The vehicle integration was performed as part of the Slide-in research project.
Elonroad is a solution with a rail that consists of short segments in sequence. The rail is intended to be installed on the road surface and rises about 5 cm and has slantwise sides. The power receiver device has at least three contacts. Demonstration along a test track is ongoing in southern Sweden.
The rail solution from the company Elways involves one rail with two trenches where the conductive parts are placed down in the trenches. The rail and a customized power receiver pick-up arm integrated into a medium sized truck have, since 2018, been used for demonstration of electrified shuttle transports along a public road in the vicinity of Arlanda Airport, outside Stockholm, Sweden. The Elways solution has had many years of development and tests in various environmental conditions.
The commercial company OLEV, a spin-off of the university KAIST in South Korea, has developed technology for wireless power transfer to buses. Its solution has been tested on a public road inside KAIST’s Daejeon campus since 2012. Since 2013, a bus route of 24 km traversed by a few buses has been in operation in Gumi with a total of 144 m of installed coils.
Bombardier has been conducting research on dynamic wireless power transfer as an evolution of its Primove commercial static solution. The system has been integrated into a Scania truck and tested in 2013 on an 80 m closed test track in Mannheim, Germany, as part of the Slide-in project.
The large EU project FABRIC has built two facilities for demonstrations of dynamic wireless power transfer: a test track outside Torino, Italy, using a Fiat van and power transfer technology developed by SAET group and the university Politecnico di Torino, and the Vedecom test track in Satory, France, using a Renault van and power transfer technology based on a commercially available static wireless solution from Qualcomm. The FABRIC project concluded its demonstration activities at the end of June 2018.
A test track for dynamic wireless power transfer has been completed at Utah State University using technology developed by WAVE. A system in the range from 25 kW to 40 kW can be tested using a 20-seat passenger bus.
In recent years the Israeli company Electreon (previously Electroad) has been known for its ambition to enable large scale adoption of pure electric buses by developing a dynamic wireless electrification system for urban transportation.
The technologies described above are the most well-known. But there are more developments and technologies going on around the world and we foresee that more developers and manufacturers will be active in the coming years. For example, Honda R&D in Japan has worked with an ERS lane on the side of the road and performed tests of high power charging at high speeds. In addition, high ambitions from China have been expressed in news media.